Installing a good quality charge controller in your solar system gives you peace of mind knowing.
You know that your batteries, usually the most expensive part of the solar system are being taken care of.
Solar charge controllers need to be taken care of too! They can heat up and that needs to be managed.
So in this post, you’ll learn why solar charger controllers become hot, how hot they should get, and lastly what steps you can take to prevent the solar charger controller temperature from getting excessively high.
Should a Solar Charge Controller get Hot?
Yes, a solar charge controller can become hot during its operation. This is perfectly normal depending on the current it is handling compared to what it is rated for and the temperature of the environment it is installed in.
Why your Solar Charge Controller Heats up
The solar charge controller temperature buildups during its operation because the process of converting and using the power from the solar panels to charge the batteries is not 100% efficient. Some of the energy is wasted in the process as heat.
The larger the solar system, the more heat will be generated during the charging process. You need to select an appropriately sized controller to handle the solar power generated.
Can You Overload a Solar Charge Controller?
Solar charge controllers can also overheat if they are overloaded. They are overloaded when you connect them to a solar panel system that supplies more current than they can handle.
For example, if a 30A/12V solar charge controller is connected to a solar panel system that supplies currents in excess of 30A then it is overloaded.
Signs that a Solar Charge Controller Is Overloaded
If the charge controller has fuse protection or a breaker, the breaker will trip provided you have used the right size of wire, breaker, or fuse to isolate the controller from the solar panel in the event that its current handling ability is exceeded.
Lastly, solar charge controllers can overheat should there be a short circuit on either the charge controller battery terminals or appliance terminals.
The short circuit causes an excessive current draw in the charge controller that causes it to overheat and can result in it being permanently damaged.
How Hot a Charge Controller gets?
Many charge controllers have a recommended operating temperature range from about -31°F to 140 °F
Pay attention to the temperature of the environment surrounding the charge controller.
If the temperature of the room is high then it is possible that the charge controller temperature is the same or even higher.
At high operating temperatures, some charge controllers limit the amount of solar current handled as a way to protect them from damage.
Tips to Prevent a Charge Controller from Heating up
Some solar charge controllers can limit power from the solar panels as a way of protecting themselves from overheating and damage when their temperature approaches the maximum limit.
Additionally, you can prevent your solar charge controller from getting extremely hot by following the tips below:
#1. Use a charge controller with overload protection or install a fuse or circuit breaker connection in the charge controller wiring so that in the event of an excessive current draw, the controller breaker trips and automatically disconnects the appliance.
#2. Install it such that the cooling fins at the back of the controller have good airflow for their effective cooling
#3. Make sure you install it in a cool and well-ventilated room for good airflow to help with the cooling.
#4. You can also consider using a cooling fan to improve airflow around it especially during the summer when temperatures are higher.
#5. Avoid installing the charge controller in places exposed to direct heat sources such as direct sunlight or an inverter powering an appliance.
If your charge controller overheats, there are several possible causes that you can check against to resolve this and protect the charge controller replacements from damage.
Confirm that the charge controller is appropriately sized for the solar panel capacities. Check that there are no faults in wiring, that the charge controller is installed in an area with good airflow or that the charge controller is not faulty.